When a person bleeds internally, they vomit blood and this condition is called hematemesis. It is usually produced from the upper GI tract. There are many causes to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage such as gastric ulcer, gastritis, duodenal ulcer etc. Hematemesis is an emergency and can be life threatening if not treated properly. A patient can be administered a proton pump inhibitor. Blood transfusions are given to people with extremely low hemoglobin levels. Nasogastric suction is administered to remove blood from the stomach.
- Erosion of the lining of the esophagus or stomach
- Mallory-Weiss syndrome – bleeding into the esophagal mucosa
- Hemorrhage in the oral cavity, nose and throat
- Bleeding gastric varices
- Tumors in the stomach and esophagus
- Chronic hepatitis
- Injury due to invasive procedures such as endoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography
- Peptic ulcer
- Atrio-esophageal fistula
- Yellow fever
- Brownish and black vomit
- Dark, tar-like stools
- Fainting or light headedness
- Rapid shallow breathing
- Cold and clammy limbs
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy :This procedure helps in the diagnosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract and hemorrhage from where hematemesis develops.
Protoscopy :This is used to examine rectal lesions and bleeding from haemorrhoids.
Other diagnosis :Upon arrival to emergency, the patient’s vital signs are checked along with blood pressure and breathing.